Impact overview

Within the COMBI modelling/quantification work, more than 35 individual impacts are quantified, following individual cause-effect chains from energy efficiency improvement (EEI) actions to the impacts. They cover the categories outdoor air pollution/health, building conditions/health and productivity, resource impacts, macroeconomic impacts and energy system/security. Some of the 35+ individual impacts are quantified in the same physical units (e.g. health impacts, resources) and can thus be pre-aggregated to give a simplified overview.

Pre-aggregated COMBI impacts

#Impact (pre-aggr.)Unit (physical)No. of sub-impacts
1human healthDALY3-4
2eco-systems: acidification, eutrophication, ozone exposure% change in area affected3
3eco-systems: crop loss% change in area affected, t of crop loss1
4air pollution emissions (mid-points)tnr. of pollutants
5avoided GHG emissionst CO2eq2
6material footprint/resource impactst4
7energy cost savings/available income effect1
8productivitywork days lost3
9gross employment/GDP (temporary)job years1
10public budget (temporary)% of budget or GDP1
11energy securityimport expenses as share of GDP1
12energy system: Value of lost load% €1

Full list of disaggregated impact end-points (status June 2017)

Benefit Category # Impact end-point Units
Physical primary unit
(define unit)
Physical (for aggregation) Monetary
Air pollution 1 Human health YLL DALY yes
2 Eco-systems: acidification % change in area affected by excess acidification no aggregation?, final EP? no
3 Eco-systems: eutrophication % change in area affected by eutrophication no aggregation?, final EP? no
4 Eco-systems: ozone exp. % change in area affected by ground-level ozone exposure no aggregation?, final EP? no
5 Eco-systems: crop loss % change in area affected by crop losses, t of crop loss km2 yes
6 Air pollution: emissions (mid-points) t no
7 Air pollution control savings (check) yes
Resources 8 Life-Cycle wide fossil fuel consumption (additional to direct combustion) tons yes
9 Metal Ores tons yes
10 Minerals tons no
11 Abiotic raw materials (sum of above) tons no
12 Biotic raw materials tons no
13 Material Footprint (sum abiotic & biotic & unused) tons no
14 Direct carbon emissions tons of CO2 equivalents (GWP 100a) no (yes: ranges/IPCC)
15 Carbon Footprint (GWP, lifecycle missions incl. direct emissions) tons of CO2 equivalents (GWP 100a) no (yes: ranges/IPCC)
Social welfare 16 Excess winter mortality
attributable to inadequate housing
Number of deaths avoided due to improved building ventilation (morbidity expert judgement) DALY yes
17 Excess winter morbidity attributable to inadequate housing YLL, DALY? DALY yes
18 Asthma due to indoor dampness DALY DALY yes
19 Energy cost savings/available income effect (WP2?) yes
20 Productivity impact through health (asthma, allergy, cardiovascular disease, cold and flu) Number of days suffered due to these diseases active days, (DALY for health) yes
21 Active time loss (TRA, unsure) Labour input and travel time saved per hour active days yes
22 Workforce productivity (TER) Labour input per hour active days (probably) yes
Macro-economy 23 Temporary (business-cycle) employment/GDP effects Number of job years yes (GDP)
24 Temporary (business-cycle) public budget effects % of budget or GDP yes
25 Aggregate demand
26 Public budget effect yes
27 Fossil fuel price effects €/MWh, % change yes (no aggr.)
28 Electricity prices
29 ETS price effect €/tCO2 yes (no aggr.)
30 Terms of Trade effect TOT index change
31 Sectoral shifts % change
Energy system & security 32 Energy imports: GDP share spent/ total bill Monetary share spent on importing energy yes (Energy import bill)
33 Avoided cost of infrastructure yes
34 Import dependence and diversity (incl. geopolitical risks) Herfindahl-
Hirschman index
35 Energy
ktoe/1000€ no
36 Derated
Share (%) no
37 Value of Lost Load (VoLL) Share in EUR yes